General Surgery

We also specialise in General Surgery. Some of our procedures are listed below.

Intestinal resection and repair

Intestinal obstruction repair is surgery to relieve a bowel obstruction. A bowel obstruction occurs when the contents of the intestines cannot pass through and exit the body. A complete obstruction is a surgical emergency.Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you are asleep and do not feel pain. This procedure is done to relieve a blockage in your intestine. A blockage that lasts for a long time can interfere with blood flow to the area. This can cause the bowel to die.

 

Liver tumors and cysts

Liver cysts occur in approximately 5% of the population. However, only about 5% of these patients ever develop symptoms. In general, cysts are thin-walled structures that contain fluid. Most cysts are single, although some patients may have several. The symptoms associated with liver cysts include upper abdominal fullness, discomfort, or pain. A small number of patients bleed into the cyst, which causes sudden and severe right upper quadrant and shoulder pain. The bleeding stops on its own, and the pain then improves over the next several days. Liver cysts do not impair the liver’s ability to function. The cyst(s) are usually found by ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT scan). Simple liver cysts are always benign. The only patients who require treatment for a liver cyst(s) are those who develop symptoms. Simply removing the fluid from the cyst with a needle is not effective because the cyst fills up again within several days. The best treatment is to remove a large portion of the cyst wall. This surgical procedure can usually be done through the laparoscope, which requires only 2-3 small incisions and an overnight stay in the hospital. Most patients recover fully within 2 weeks.

 

Gallbladder stone, biliary diseases

Gallbladder diseases considered here include gallstones, tumors, and acute acalculous cholecystitis.

Gallbladder stones are an extremely common disorder and are usually asymptomatic. Some patients experience bleary colic, an intermittent and often severe pain in the epigastria or right upper quadrant, and at times between the scapulas because of temporary obstruction of the cystic duct with a gallstone. If the cystic duct obstruction persists, the gallbladder becomes inflamed and the patient develops cholecystitis, an acute inflammation and infection of the gallbladder. Most gallstones are composed primarily of cholesterol, with smaller amounts of mucus, calcium bilirubinate, and protein. Pigment stones, a result of hemolysis, are less common and are made primarily of calcium bilirubinate. Symptoms occur with gallstones when the gallbladder contracts, often after a meal, resulting in occlusion of the cystic duct with a stone that produces symptoms, typically pain.

 

Anal diseases (hemorrhoids, sinuses and fistula surgery)

Hemorrhoids, or piles, is a sometimes painful mass of distended (swollen) veins in the lining of the anus and rectum, resulting from the formation of varicose veins around the anus. Internal hemorrhoids occur at the junction of the anus and rectum and are covered with mucous membrane. External hemorrhoids occur just outside the anus and are covered with skin. On occasion an internal hemorrhoid may prolapse, or protrude, to the outside, cutting off the blood supply. A number of treatments are available for internal hemorrhoids. External hemorrhoids may be treated with local care to relieve pain; if they recur or remain symptomatic they may be surgically removed.

 

Hemorrhoids can occur at any age, often without apparent cause.  A typical scenario for developing hemorrhoids might be someone with a little chronic constipation, who sits for several minutes or more for each bowel movement, often reading a magazine or newspaper at the same time.  Repeated straining at stool, over time, causes the encircling dilated veins to gradually stretch and get pushed downward through the anus, ahead of the stool.  You might notice that you must wipe several times afterward, and you may be aware of some “extra tissue” protruding through the anus, or note a little trace of blood on the toilet paper.  Contributing factors may include severe constipation or diarrhea, pregnancy, liver disorders, rectal tumors, and the repeated long term use of laxatives. Hemorrhoids can cause itching and burning and may bleed during a bowel movement.

 

Abdominal hernias

A hernia happens when there is a hole or a weakness in a muscle that allows organs or tissue to bulge through the defect. Hernias range in severity from barely noticeable to life-threatening, depending on the size of the defect and the organs involved. In some cases, hernia surgery is performed to remove the annoying or unsightly bulge; in other cases, severe organ damage can occur if surgery is not performed immediately to repair the problem. A hernia can happen in many different areas of the body. The most common, though, are in the abdomen and groin areas.

Common Types of Hernias – From Hernia Diagnosis to Surgery and Recovery

  • Inguinal Hernia is one of the two types of hernias that form in the groin.
  • Incisional Hernia forms along the site of a surgical incision.
  • Epigastric Hernia is one of the types of abdominal hernias that forms between the belly button and the chest.
  • Umbilical Hernia forms near the umbilicus or belly button.
  • Femoral Hernia is one of two types of hernias that form in the groin.
  • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) is a type of hernia that is present at birth that can allow abdominal organs to slip in to the chest cavity.
  • Hiatal Hernia allows the stomach to slip up in to the chest cavity.

 

Breast disease and tumors

Cancer is a broad term for a class of diseases characterized by abnormal cells that grow and invade  healthy cells in the body.  Breast cancer starts in the cells of the breast as a group of cancer cells that can then invade surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to other areas of the body. Cancer begins in the cells which are the basic building blocks that make up tissue. Tissue is found in the breast and other parts of the body.  Sometimes, the process of cell growth goes wrong and new cells form when the body doesn’t need them and old or damaged cells do not die as they should.  When this occurs, a build up of cells often forms a mass of tissue called a lump, growth, or tumor. Breast cancer occurs when malignant tumors develop in the breast.  These cells can spread by breaking away from the original tumor and entering blood vessels or lymph vessels, which branch into tissues throughout the body. When cancer cells travel to other parts of the body and begin damaging other tissues and organs, the process is called metastasis.

 

Gland surgery (Thyroid, salivary and lymph node surgery)

The thyroid is a small gland shaped a like a butterfly. It’s located in the lower front part of the neck, just below the voice box. The thyroid produces hormones that the blood carries to every tissue in the body. It helps regulate metabolism (the process during which the body turns food into energy). It also plays a role in keeping the organs functioning properly and helping the body conserve heat.

Sometimes the thyroid produces too much hormone. It may also develop structural problems, such as swelling and the growth of cysts or nodules. Thyroid surgery may be necessary when these problems occur. Thyroid surgery removes all or a portion of the thyroid gland. A doctor will perform this surgery in a hospital while the patient is under general anesthesia.

 

Repair of esophageal hernia (hiatus hernia repair)

The esophagus passes through an opening in the diaphragm (i.e esophageal hiatus) as it courses through the chest to the abdomen eventually ending at the stomach. This opening is usually adequate for passage of the esophagus and nothing else. However, patients that have a hiatal hernia have an enlarged opening. There are four different typres of hiatal hernias described. The sliding hernia is the most common of the four representing more than eighty-percent of all hiatal hernias. The lower esophageal sphincter- the higher pressure zone near the junction of the stomach and esophagus fails and allows stomach contents to reflux into the esophagus. Patients recover sooner after laparoscopic cruroplasty and Nissen fundoplication. Return to activities can occur within 2-7 days compared to 4-6 weeks with an open approach. Wound infections occur less frequently with the laparoscopic technique. Also, less pain has been reported with laparoscopy. Most importantly, greater than ninety-percent of patients are symptom free then years after the procedure.

 

Treatment of stomach ulcers

Peptic ulcer disease refers to painful sores or ulcers in the lining of the stomach or first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. No single cause has been found for ulcers. However, it is now clear that an ulcer is the end result of an imbalance between digestive fluids in the stomach and duodenum. Most ulcers are caused by an infection with a type of bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori).